Cancer’s Metabolic Pathway and Inhibitors

Cancer’s Metabolic Pathway and Inhibitors

Generic Version 001:
November 2019
Abbey Mitchell for the Healing Cancer Study Support Group
www.facebook.com/groups/healingcancerstudysupport


Glucose Pathways


1) GLUT 1

PubMed 2012
The role of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in the diagnosis and therapy of tumors]. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22470192


by prescription

Statins for inhibiting GLUT 1  (lipid statins)

Statin thread in study group

PubMed 2012
Statins Impair Glucose Uptake in Tumor Cells
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349257/


over the counter

EGCG for inhibiting GLUT 1

EGCG (AKA Green Tea) thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Suppressing glucose metabolism with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces breast cancer cell growth in preclinical models. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30310905


Curcumin for inhibiting GLUT 1

Curcumin thread in study group

PubMed 2016
Curcumin directly inhibits the transport activity of GLUT1. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5006061/


Quercetin for inhibiting GLUT 1

Quercetin thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Quercetin inhibits glucose transport by binding to an exofacial site on GLUT1
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6035882/


Graviola for inhibiting GLUT 1

Graviola thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Emerging therapeutic potential of graviola and its constituents in cancers
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC58889

Liposomal Graviola = best absorption



2) Insulin 

PubMed 2013
Insulin enhances metabolic capacities of cancer cells by dual regulation of glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3710280/


by prescription

Metformin for Insulin  

Metformin thread in study group

PubMed 2017
Identification of the signals for glucose-induced insulin secretion in INS1 (832/13) β-cells using metformin-induced metabolic deceleration as a model
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5702682/



over the counter

Berberine for Insulin


Berberine thread in study group

PubMed 2013
Effect of berberine administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2380899


3) Pentose Phosphate (PP) 

PubMed 2019
Crucial role of the pentose phosphate pathway in malignant tumors
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444344/



via practitioner / prescription


Polydatin for inhibiting Pentose Phosphate pathway

thread in study group (coming soon)

PubMed 2018
A new inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase blocks pentose phosphate pathway and suppresses malignant proliferation and metastasis in vivo
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5951921/


over the counter


DHEA for inhibiting Pentose Phosphate pathway

DHEA thread in study group

PubMed 2011
Dehydroepiandrosterone Inhibits Glucose Flux Through the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Human and Mouse Endometrial Stromal Cells, Preventing Decidualization and Implantation
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146244/


Mannose for inhibiting Pentose Phosphate pathway

thread in study group (coming soon)

PubMed 2018
Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30464341


EGCG for inhibiting Pentose Phosphate pathway

EGCG (AKA Green Tea) thread in study group
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

PubMed 2017
Identification of Epigallocatechin-3- Gallate as an Inhibitor of Phosphoglycerate Mutase 1
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28611670



4) OXPHOS 

PubMed 2018
Oxidative Phosphorylation as an Emerging Target in Cancer Therapy. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29420223


by prescription

Metformin for inhibiting OXPHOS

Metformin thread in study group


PubMed 2019
study mentions both Metformin and Doxycycline

Metabolism-Based Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Cancer Stem Cells
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438930/


Doxycycline for inhibiting OXPHOS

Doxycycline thread in study group


PubMed 2019
study mentions both Metformin and Doxycycline

Metabolism-Based Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Cancer Stem Cells
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438930/


over the counter

Berberine for inhibiting OXPHOS

Berberine thread in study group

PubMed 2015
Berberine interfered with breast cancer cells metabolism, balancing energy homeostasis. – PubMed
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25212656


Niclosamide or inhibiting  OXPHOS

Niclosamide thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Niclosamide: Beyond an antihelminthic drug. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28389414


Citrus Bergamot or inhibiting  OXPHOS

Citrus Bergamot thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Bergamot natural products eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs) by targeting mevalonate, Rho-GDI-signalling and mitochondrial metabolism. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29626418


5) Aerobic Glycolysis

PubMed 2018
Inhibition of Glycolysis and Glutaminolysis: An Emerging Drug Discovery Approach to Combat Cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110043/


Practitioner & Prescription

Intravenous Vitamin-C inhibits Aerobic Glycolysis

Intravenous Vitamin C thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Vitamin C in Cancer: A Metabolomics Perspective
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6018397/


Melatonin inhibits Aerobic Glycolysis

Melatonin thread in study group

PubMed 2016
Melatonin suppression of aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), survival signalling and metastasis in human leiomyosarcoma. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26607298


Auranofin  for inhibiting  Aerobic Glycolysis  

thread in study group coming soon

PubMed 2018
Elimination of stem-like cancer cell side-population by auranofin through modulation of ROS and glycolysis
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833411/


2 Deoxyglucose inhibits Aerobic Glycolysis

thread in study group coming soon

PubMed 2014
2-Deoxy-D-glucose targeting of glucose metabolism in cancer cells as a potential therapy. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25218591


3-Bromopyruvate inhibits Aerobic Glycolysis

thread in study group coming soon

PubMed 2019
Tumor Energy Metabolism and Potential of 3-Bromopyruvate as an Inhibitor of Aerobic Glycolysis: Implications in Tumor Treatment. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30845728


over the counter

EGCG inhibits Aerobic Glycolysis

EGCG (AKA Green Tea) thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Suppressing glucose metabolism with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces breast cancer cell growth in pre-clinical models. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30310905


Chrysin for inhibiting Aerobic Glycolysis

thread in study group coming soon

PubMed 2017
Chrysin inhibited tumor glycolysis and induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting hexokinase-2. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5359903/


R-Alpha Lipoic Acid for inhibiting Aerobic Glycolysis  

thread in study group coming soon

PubMed 2012

Lipoic acid inhibits cell proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3542233/


d-Mannose  for inhibiting Aerobic Glycolysis  

thread in study group coming soon

PubMed 2018
Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30464341


Oleanolic Acid for inhibiting Aerobic Glycolysis  

thread in study group coming soon

PubMed 2014
Oleanolic Acid Suppresses Aerobic Glycolysis in Cancer Cells by Switching Pyruvate Kinase Type M Isoforms
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3953484/


Tocotrienols for inhibiting  Aerobic Glycolysis

Tocotrienols thread in study group

PubMed 2019
γ-Tocotrienol Suppression of the Warburg Effect Is Mediated by AMPK Activation in Human Breast Cancer Cells. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=%CE%B3-Tocotrienol+Suppression+of+the+Warburg+Effect+Is+Mediated+by+AMPK+Activation+in+Human+Breast+Cancer+Cells



Fatty Acid Pathways

PubMed 2018
Lipid metabolism reprogramming and its potential targets in cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5993136/#CR27


1) SREBP-1

Sterol Responsive Element Binding Protein

PubMed 2008
Sterol responsive element binding protein (SREBP-1) activity is regulated by mTORC1 and contributes to Akt-dependent cell growth.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18762023


by prescription: none 


over the counter:

Berberine  for inhibiting SREBP-1  

Berberine thread in study group

PubMed 2004
Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism distinct from statins. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15531889


Ganoderma tsugae (Reishi Mushrooms) for  SREBP-1

Medical Mushrooms thread in study group


PubMed 2018
Ganoderma tsugae Inhibits the SREBP-1/AR Axis Leading to Suppression of Cell Growth and Activation of Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222511/



2) ATP citrate lyase ACLY

PubMed 2018
ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) inhibitors: An anti-cancer strategy at the crossroads of glucose and lipid metabolism. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30195238


by prescription: none


over the counter

Garcinia Cambogia for inhibiting ACLY  

Hydroxycitrate (AKA Garcinia Cambogia) thread in study group

PubMed 2017
Binding of hydroxycitrate to human ATP-citrate lyase. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28777081


3) Fatty Acid Synthesis (FASE)

PubMed 2018
Emerging role of lipid metabolism alterations in Cancer stem cells
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6003041/


by prescription

Metformin and Aspirin (combo) for inhibiting F.A.S.E

Metformin thread in study group

Aspirin thread in study group

PubMed 2015
Salicylate (Aspirin) activates AMPK and synergizes with Metformin to reduce the survival of prostate and lung cancer cells ex vivo through inhibition of d..
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25940306


over the counter

EGCG from green tea for inhibiting F.A.S.E  

EGCG (AKA Green Tea) thread in study group

PubMed 2007
Tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate suppresses heregulin-beta1-induced fatty acid synthase expression in human breast cancer cells by inhib… – PubMed – NCB
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17539658/



4) Fatty Acid Oxidation (FAO)


PubMed 2014
Cancer metabolic reprogramming: importance, main features, and potentials for precise targeted anti-cancer therapies
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24738035


by Prescription

Doxycycline for inhibiting F.A.O


Doxycycline thread in study group

PubMed 2015
Salicylate (Aspirin) activates AMPK and synergizes with Metformin to reduce the survival of prostate and lung cancer cells ex vivo through inhibition of de n… – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25940306


over the counter

Virgin Olive Oil for inhibiting F.A.O

thread in study group (coming soon)

PubMed
Effects of Virgin Olive Oils Differing in Their Bioactive Compound Contents on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Healthy Adults: A… – PubMed – NCBI
https://sci-hub.tw/https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030561


7) Mevalonate

PubMed
Mevalonate Pathway and Human Cancers. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26758953


by prescription

Statin for inhibiting Mevalonate

Statin thread in study group

PubMed 2019
Current perspectives on statins as potential anti-cancer therapeutics: clinical outcomes and underlying molecular mechanisms. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31737505


over the counter

Citrus Bergamot for inhibiting Mevalonate  

Citrus Bergamot thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Bergamot natural products eradicate cancer stem cells (CSCs) by targeting mevalonate, Rho-GDI-signalling and mitochondrial metabolism
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29626418


8) SREBP-2

PubMed 2018
SCAP/SREBPs Are Central Players in Lipid Metabolism and Novel Metabolic Targets in Cancer Therapy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214187/


by Prescription

Dipyridamole for inhibiting SREBP-2

Dipyridamole thread in study group

PubMed 2013
Dipyridamole prevents triple-negative breast-cancer progression. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22760522


over the counter

Luteolin for inhibiting SREBP-2

 Luteolin thread in study group

PubMed 2015
The Flavone Luteolin Suppresses SREBP-2 Expression and Post-Translational Activation in Hepatic Cells. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=The+Flavone+Luteolin+Suppresses+SREBP-2+Expression+and+Post-Translational+Activation+in+Hepatic+Cells 


Tocotrienols  for inhibiting SREBP-2   
Tocotrienols thread in study group


PubMed 2018
Tocotrienols: The promising analogues of vitamin E for cancer therapeutics – ScienceDirect
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29496592


Glutamine Pathways

1) IGF-1 Insulin-like growth factor

PubMed 1995
The insulin-like growth factor I receptor protects tumor cells from apoptosis in vivo. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7758000

:and my cancer type specific
Title
URL


by prescription

Metformin for inhibiting  IGF-1

Metformin thread in study group

PubMed 2015
Metformin down-regulates endometrial carcinoma cell secretion of IGF-1 and expression of IGF-1R. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640355




Tamoxifen for inhibiting  IGF-1 :

Tamoxifen Resistance thread in study group

PubMed 2014   (pls msg me with better study if you can find)
Insulin-like growth factor receptor polymorphism defines clinical outcome in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23459444


over the counter

Berbeine for inhibiting  IGF-1

Berberine thread in study group

PubMed 2019
Berberine improves insulin resistance in adipocyte models by regulating the methylation of hypoxia-inducible factor-3α. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Berberine+improves+insulin+resistance+in+adipocyte+models+by+regulating+the+methylation+of+hypoxia-inducible+factor-3%CE%B1



2) Glutamine OXPHOS

PubMed 2010
Glutamine Addiction: A New Therapeutic Target in Cancer
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917518/

:and my cancer type specific
Title
URL


by prescription

Doxycycline for inhibiting Glutamine OXPHOS 

Doxycycline thread in study group

PubMed 2017
Targeting hypoxic cancer stem cells (CSCs) with Doxycycline: Implications for optimizing anti-angiogenic therapy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5593549/


Metformin for inhibiting Glutamine OXPHOS 

Metformin thread in study group

PubMed 2019
Mitochondrial Flexibility of Breast Cancers: A Growth Advantage and a Therapeutic Opportunity
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6562467/


over the counter

Berberine for inhibiting Glutamine OXPHOS

Berberine thread in study group

PubMed 2017
Berberine protects against glutamate-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 and N2a cells
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5478787/



Niclosamide for inhibiting Glutamine OXPHOS

Niclosamide thread in study group

PubMed 2017
Anthelminthic drug niclosamide sensitizes the responsiveness of cervical cancer cells to paclitaxel via oxidative stress-mediated mTOR inhibition. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28137584


3) mTOR

mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway

PubMed 2019

mTOR Signaling in Cancer and mTOR Inhibitors in Solid Tumor Targeting Therapy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6387042/


:and my cancer type specific
Title
URL


by prescription

Metformin for inhibiting  mTOR 

Metformin thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Metformin is associated with reduced cell proliferation in human endometrial cancer by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29182407


over the counter

Berberine for inhibiting  mTOR

Berberine thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Berberine decelerates glucose metabolism via suppression of mTOR‑dependent HIF‑1α protein synthesis in colon cancer cells. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29565467


Vitamin D3 combined with Metformin for inhibiting  mTOR

Vitamin D thread in study group

PubMed 2015
Combined use of vitamin D3 and metformin exhibits synergistic chemopreventive effects on colorectal neoplasia in rats and mice. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Combined+use+of+vitamin+D3+and+metformin+exhibits+synergistic+chemopreventive+effects+on+colorectal+neoplasia+in+rats+and+mice.


Oleanolic acid for inhibiting  mTOR

Oleanolic acid thread coming soon in study group


PubMed 2014
Oleanolic acid suppresses aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells by switching pyruvate kinase type M isoforms. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Oleanolic+Acid+Suppresses+Aerobic+Glycolysis+in+Cancer+Cells+by+Switching+Pyruvate+Kinase+Type+M+Isoforms


4) Cancer Autophagy

PubMed 2018
Autophagy and Hallmarks of Cancer. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30311559

:and my cancer type specific

Title
URL


by prescription

Hydroxychloroquine for inhibiting cancer induced Autophagy
Hydroxychloroquine in study group

PubMed 2018
Targeting autophagy in cancer. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29671878




Propranolol for inhibiting cancer induced Autophagy

Propranolol thread in study group

PubMed 2018
Propranolol sensitizes prostate cancer cells to glucose metabolism inhibition and prevents cancer progression
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935740/


over the counter

Loratadine (Clarityn) for inhibiting cancer induced autophagy

Loratadine aka Clarityn thread in study group

PubMed 2013
Transformation-associated changes in sphingolipid metabolism sensitize cells to lysosomal cell death induced by inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24029234


Artemisinin for inhibiting cancer induced autophagy

Artemisinin discussion thread thread in study group

PubMed 2019
Targeting autophagy enhances the anticancer effects of artemisinin and its derivatives. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30972803


5) Nucleotides & Nucleosides


PubMed 2019
Cancer Cells Tune the Signaling Pathways to Empower de Novo Synthesis of Nucleotides. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6562601/

:and my cancer type specific

Title
URL


by prescription

Dipyridamole for inhibiting de Novo Synthesis of Nucleotides

Dipyridamole in study group

PubMed 2019
Dipyridamole as a new drug to prevent Epstein-Barr virus reactivation
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=31580916

(EBV, not cancer but very current and explains the mechanism of action)



over the counter

Danshen for inhibiting Nucleoside Transporters

Danshen in study group

PubMed 2019
Salvianolic acid A inhibits nucleoside transport and potentiates the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic drugs.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15493835

6) Glutaminolysis

PubMed
Glutaminolysis: A Hallmark of Cancer Metabolism. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28301735

:and my cancer type specific


Title
URL


by prescription

L-asparaginase for inhibiting Glutaminolysis

thread in study group coming soon


PubMed

A Novel l-Asparaginase with low l-Glutaminase Coactivity Is Highly Efficacious against Both T- and B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias In Vivo.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29343523

BPTES for inhibiting Glutaminolysis

thread in study group coming soon


PubMed

Glutaminolysis as a target for cancer therapy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225500/


over the counter

Curcumin, Ursolic Acid and Resveratrol (combo) for inhibiting glutaminolysis

Curcumin thread in study group , Ursolic Acid thread ,  Resveratrol thread


PubMed

Combinatorial treatment with natural compounds in prostate cancer inhibits prostate tumor growth and leads to key modulations of cancer cell metabo… – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29202102


ECGC  for inhibiting  glutaminolysis

EGCG (AKA Green Tea) thread in study group

PubMed
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1-mutated cancers are sensitive to the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526618/


Note. Glutaminolysis, and mTOR  inhibition drives cancer cells to use autophagy/macropinocytosis pathway to get their energy so we need to have the autophagy pathway inhibited simultaneously.


7) Serine

PubMed
The importance of serine metabolism in cancer. – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27458133

:and my cancer type specific


Title
URL


by prescription

Nothing yet  for inhibiting  serine 

________ thread in study group

Title
URL


over the counter

Aspirin for inhibiting serine

Aspirin thread in study group


PubMed
Aspirin inhibits serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 in tumor necrosis factor-treated cells through targeting multiple serine ki… – PubMed – NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12714600

This is where my eyes fell out and my fingers dropped off and my patient little dog frowned at me! Cell signalling will have to wait until we can form some online document co-creation groups!

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